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Medical News

Global Medical News for 13 Aug 2019

Much of our genome has no apparent purpose. Is it so-called "junk DNA" or do we simply not understand it? (Credit: ktsdesign/Shutterstock) Would you purchase a book with over 98 percent of the text... written in gibberish? Biology has no business in the book industry, yet it still writes a pretty fascinating guidebook: DNA. Our genetic manual holds the instructions for the proteins that make up and power our bodies. But less than 2 percent of our DNA actually codes for them. The rest -- 98.5
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New research details how two highly lethal viruses have greater pathogenic potential when their proteins are combined.
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Castleman Disease patients who do not respond to the only drug currently approved by the FDA may have another option that targets a specific pathway called PI3K/Akt/mTOR.
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A simple, reversible chemical treatment can segregate X-bearing sperm from Y-bearing sperm, allowing dramatic alteration of the normal 50/50 male/female offspring ratio, according to a new study. The... study was performed in mice, but the technique is likely to be widely applicable to other mammals as well.
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Compared to people who only drank alcohol, those who used alcohol and marijuana simultaneously were more likely to drink heavier and more often, according to researchers. They were also more likely to... experience alcohol-related problems -- like impulsive actions they later regretted.
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The first study to systematically survey a single graduating class on the effect of a multi-year campaign against mental illness has found that college students exposed to certain anti-stigma messages... and activities are significantly less likely to stigmatize people with these conditions.
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Non-smokers can get emphysema from air pollution

Science Daily - 13 Aug 2019 19:16
Long-term exposure to air pollution was linked to increases in emphysema between 2000 and 2018, according to a new study.
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A new study sheds new light on how the CD2AP gene may enhance Alzheimer's disease susceptibility.
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For adults with high blood pressure, greater blood pressure control than what's currently considered standard is associated with fewer adverse changes of the brain, which could mean lower risks of... dementia and cognitive impairment.
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Researchers have discovered that removing a single enzyme in mice dramatically boosts survival from sepsis, an often fatal over-reaction of the immune system to infection. The finding provides a new... and unexpected therapeutic target for new drug development.
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A new study shows that facial differences resulting from population divergence in first Americans is due to the complex interaction of environment and evolution on these populations and sheds light on... how human diversification occurred after settlement of the New World.
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Researchers compared CBD absorption in patients on an empty stomach versus a standardized fatty breakfast.
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A molecule called tRNA is an essential component of the human genome that acts as a translator. When researchers and clinicians investigate the genome's relation to disease, they have traditionally... focused on mutations in the code for proteins. But now researchers have shown that the genes encoding tRNAs can also have mutations that cause the code to be misread, and in greater numbers than previously thought.
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Researchers have identified a molecular switch that impacts immune responses to viral infections, and whether or not protective antibodies are produced. The team also made the surprising discovery... that the immune system protects against different viruses via distinct pathways. Their findings could lead to better strategies to develop vaccines for previously hard-to-prevent viruses.
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Damaged hearts rewired with nanotube fibers

Science Daily - 13 Aug 2019 17:22
Thin, flexible fibers made of carbon nanotubes have now proven able to bridge damaged heart tissues and deliver the electrical signals needed to keep those hearts beating.
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Researchers have developed the first model of kidney filtration in the lab that accurately mimics human kidney physiology. The model represents a leap in chronic kidney disease research and could help... doctors understand disease progression in individual patients.
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Infants born to mothers taking naltrexone to treat opioid use disorder during pregnancy developed no signs of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) during their hospitalization, a new study... shows. In comparison to infants of mothers taking buprenorphine during pregnancy, infants exposed to naltrexone had shorter hospital stays, and mothers reported no use of other opioids during their pregnancy.
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UTI discovery may lead to new treatments

Science Daily - 13 Aug 2019 16:19
Sufferers of recurring urinary tract infections (UTIs) could expect more effective treatments. UTIs are one of the most common bacterial infections.
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Treat insomnia before sleep apnea

Science Daily - 13 Aug 2019 16:19
The 'double whammy' of co-occurring insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea is a complex problem best managed with non-drug targeted psych interventions, a new study has found. By following simple new... guidelines, people with the concurrent conditions reported great improvement to both their sleep, and their health -- with about 50% improvement in global insomnia severity and night-time insomnia after 6 months.
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A new study analyzing samples from patients with and without acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) provides additional evidence for an association between the rare but often serious condition that causes... muscle weakness and paralysis, and infection with non-polio enteroviruses.
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A new article demonstrates distinct improvements to the inference and generalization performance of diffractive optical neural networks.
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Exposure to violence, social conflict, and other stressors increase risk for psychiatric conditions such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. A new paper suggests that the behavior of... oligodendrocytes -- the glial cells that produce the myelin sheath that protects nerve fibers -- plays a critical role in determining whether we succumb to or tolerate stress.
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In a new study, investigators found that bacterial genera in children were more similar to those of their own mothers than to those of unrelated women. Their data suggest that the mode of delivery at... birth could be an important factor in shaping the child's microbiome.
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Researchers have discovered how our choice of diet can weaken our gut immune system and lead to the development of diabetes.
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Flavonoid-rich diet protectsConsuming flavonoid-rich items such as apples and tea protects against cancer and heart disease, particularly for smokers and heavy drinkers, according to new research.
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